There are over 250 species of insect recorded from Svalbard, including beetles, flies, fleas and even aphids. Beetles (Coleoptera) Beetles are also known on Svalbard. However, while as a global average the beetles comprise 38% of all insect species, in the Arctic beetles are far less diverse. Only 20 species are recorded from Svalbard forming 8.8% of the insect species in the archipelago. In generally they are rare and difficult to find but there are two species of predatory rove beetles (Staphylinidae) are common under stones under birdcliffs. . These are powerful hunters in their own world and may attack and eat springtails (Collembola), particularly the large yellow springtail, Megaphorura arcticus (no common name) which is often the same size as the beetle. A species of weevil may be found on the willow in, amongst other places, Adventfjord. Wasps (Hymenoptera) Wasps are common but not the large black and yellow social wasps with the sting that all are familar with. The Svalbard wasp fauna consists of two groups, the plant feeding wasps and the parasitic wasps. The plant feeding wasps are generally known as Sawflies due to the fact the female has a sawlike ovipositor (egg laying organ) with which she cuts a hole in the plant leaf into which to lay the egg. The most common species lay eggs on the polar willow (Salix polaris, Polarvier). These eggs rapidly hatch to produce small green caterpillers. These are difficult to spot but in late August can often be found in the cotton wool like substance forming the remains of the willow catkins. The parasitic wasps lay their eggs within the larvae of flies and sawflies. These hatch and eventually eat the host larvae inside out. Wasps with this type of life history are known as Parasitoids. While this might sound particularly grisly the parasitoid larvae do not have it all their own way. There exists a group known as hyperparasitoids. These wasps lay their eggs in the larvae of the parasitoid which is within the fly larvae host. Bees. Bees are also included in the Hymenoptera but there are none present on Svalbard. Fleas (Siphonaptera) The fleas known from Svalbard are parasitic on the birds, the seabirds such as kittiwakes, glaucous gulls and the common eider, but also and the barnacle geese. In general though the birds on Svalbard have few invertebrate parasites compared to bird populations further south. Flies (Diptera) As is common in the Arctic the flies, Diptera, form the most numerous insects. Perhaps the most noticeable being the non-biting chironomids numerous in the summer. These spend most of their lives as larvae before pupating and emerging as adults. Since the adults do not feed they have a short period as an adult. To conserve energy the males often wait on the ground until they hear a female fly past, responding to the sound of her wings. This behaviour was deduced by a Finnish biologist who observed that he could induce the males to take to the air by humming a Finnish folk tune. There are also mosquitoes on Svalbard. These can be extremely numerous, especially in Adventdalen, around Brucebyen and Kapp Thordsen. The species is irritating but not thought to spread disease on Svalbard. The commonly repeated story that the mosquito was accidentally imported to Svalbard by phosphate miners is, unfortunately, likely to be incorrect (See Box in Where do they come from?). Butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera) Usually one of the most obvious orders of insects are the butterflies and moths but on Svalbard there are only two species of resident moth and no butterflies. One of the moths is only known from Kongsfjord, Pyla fusca (no common name), while the other, the Exile (Apamea maillardi) is observed in many locations, including Adventdalen but in extremely low numbers. Although only two are resident on Svalbard, that is they are able to complete their life cycle here, many species are occasionally blown here with the wind. Seven other species, including the green veined white (Pieris napi), Camberwell beauty (Nymphalis antiopa) and the painted lady (Vanessa cardui) have been seen on Svalbard. However, it is the Diamond Backed Moth, (Plutella xylostella) that is the best known vagrant. This species is arrives regularly after a period of southerly winds being brought from the Norwegian mainland or Finland. It cannot survive here and soon dies. Caddisflies (Trichoptera) One species of caddisfly is present and can be seen in many ponds and lakes, for example Linnevatn or ponds in front of glaciers . This insect is best known for the case composed of small stones that the nymph constructs and lives in. True bugs (Hemiptera) Perhaps surprisingly there are two species of aphid on Svalbard and both are endemic, that is they are only known from Svalbard. Both these species have evolved unusual lifecyles to cope with the Svalbard environment. The best known of these aphids is Acyrthosiphon svalbardicum (no common name). It feeds on the Dryas octopetula, often found at the base of the leaves or on the flower shoots under the petals. The second species, Sitobion calvulus, feeds on polar willow (Polarvier) but occasionally also on Pedicularis sp. (hairy horsewort; lodnemyrklegg). Both species can be found in Adventdalen but also both have a restricted distribution. See life history of aphids on Svalbard. Sucking lice (Anoplura) Biting lice (Mallaphaga) What is missing? There are also some notable absences amongst the Svalbard insect community. For instance, although there are bumblebees on Greenland, no bees are known from Svalbard.