Photo © Pål Hermansen

Photo © Steve Coulson

Edderkopper og midd

ARACHNIDA

Araneae (spiders)

Spider cocoonsAlle edderkoppene er små, svarte eller brune dyr med en maksimum kroppslengde på 3mm (bilde). De er ekstremt vanlige og kan finnes under steiner. Ved fjærning av steiner blir de ofte stående stille i 4 til 5 sekunder før de plutselig våkner til live og unnslipper. Det er vanlig å finne rester av eggkokonger og noen ganger kokonger med uklekkede egg som foreldrene fremdeles vokter (bilde). Det er kun noen få kjente observasjoner av edderkopper innenhus. Edderkoppene på Svalbard er tilpasset miljøet som finnes og går dermed sjeldent inn i hus.

Spiders under a stone.

 

<i>Hilaria glacialis</I> <i>C. spetsbergensis</I> <i>Erigone psychrophila</I> <i>Erigone arctica paleoarctica</I> <i>Mughiphantes sobrius</i>, with characteristic colouration.


Acari (mites)

<i>Ameronothrus lineatus</I> mites gathered together under a stone, Blomstrandhaløya, June 2008. Two oribatid mite species. On the left <i>Diapterobates notatus</i> (adult and juvenile) and on the right <i>Oribatula tibialis</i>. Both are around 1mm in length and live in the soil surface. Left <i>Mycobates sarakensis</i>, right <i>Tectocephus velatus</i>

Some 140 species of mite are known from Svalbard. The majority are small innocuous animals living in the soil, however, some can be often seen running about over rocks on warm days. The mites can be divided into three groups, the hard bodied (oribatids) and the soft bodied (mesostigmatids and prostigmatids) mites. The hard-bodied mites have the greatest diversity on Svalbard with over 80 species recorded. These animals live in the soil and feed mostly on dead plant material or fungae. Although they are very small, less than one millimetre long, they often live many years. One species had its life cycle described recently and was found to take five years to become adult.Oribatid mite <i>Ameronothrus lineatus</i>. Collected Blomstrandhalvøya. Species common under rocks close to the coastline. Approximately one mm in length.

Left <i>Camisia anomia</i>, right <i>Camisia foveolata</i>

Left <i>Hermannia reticulata</i> juveniles, right <i>H. reticulata</i> adult

Less is known about the soft bodied mites. They are often predatory feeding on other mites as well as other invertebrates. They also have a shorter life cycle although the life cycle on Svalbard is unknown. Predation in action. Prostigmatid (soft bodied) mite devouring a colleague. <i>Thinoseius spinosus</i> deutonymph <i>Arctoseius haarlovi</i> female Aphid (<i>Acyrthosiphon svalbardicum<I>) being attacked by predatory mite larva.

<i>Zercon</I> sp. mite.

Predatory mites

Juvenile mite, left <i>Thinoseius spinosus</I> (deutonymph) found attached to adult fly, right <i>Protophormia terraenovae</I>. The young of this species of mite attach themselves to a fly host so as to be travel to new areas.

Gamasid mite <i>Arctoseuis</i> species.

Gamasid mite <i>Zercon </i> species.

Soft bodied predatory mites. Both around than 2mm in length.

Prostigmatid miteProstigmatid mite and thumb - small animals!

 

 

 


Ticks

Recently the parastitic bird tick has been reported from Spitsbergen. The tick appears to be widespread in Bjørnøya (Bear Island) but has been rarely seen, until recently, on Spitsbergen. Here, the majority of seabirds have few, if any ticks. Nonetheless, some birds from a few colonies including Brunnichs guillimots and kittiwakes, appear to be infested. The reasons for these observations are unclear. However recent work in Svalbard has revealed a possible link between warmer winter conditions and increased prevalence on the seabirds (see paper Descamp 2013 click here). Hence, the warmer winter conditions projected by climate change models may lead to an increase in rick occurence in the sea bird colonies in Svalbard. Seabird tick <i>Ixodes uriae</i>

Tick mouthparts